Mineral rich District, Jharsuguda is one of the most industrially developed District of Odisha. Jharsuguda District was established on 1st January, 1994. earlier it was a part of Sambalpur District. It was created by amalgamation of the erstwhile Jamindars of Rampur, Kolabira, Padampur and Kudabaga. The District is surrounded by Sundargarh District in the North, Sambalpur District in the East, Bargarh District in the South and Chattisgarh state in the West. Jharsuguda District is situated at a distance of 515 km from Kolkata, 616 km from Nagpur, 48 km from Sambalpur and 372 km from state capital Bhubaneswar. Jharsuguda District is covering total area of 2, 081 sq kms. The District lies between 21.82 degree north latitude and 84.1 degree east longitude.
Total population of the District is 579505 consisting of 352 villages. Urban Population is 231165 and rural population is 348340. Total male population of the District is 296690 and female population is 282815. The District consists of total 104620 SC population and 176758 ST population. The total literacy rate of the District is 78.86% comprising 86.61% male literacy rate and 70.73% female literacy rate.
As per the administrative set up of the District is concerned, Jharsuguda District has got one sub division namely Jharsuguda. There are total five Tahsils (Jharsuguda, Lakhanpur, Laikera, Kolabira-N and Kirmira-N) in the District. Total five Blocks (Jharsuguda, Lakhanpur, Kolabira, Laikera, Kirimira) are there in the District.
The District of Jharsuguda is characterized by a hot dry summer. The temperature in the month of May is 42 degree at the maximum. The average rainfall of the District is 1500 millimeter. From April to August the wind blows from south and southwest whereas from September onwards wind blows from North West.
Major portion of the land area covering hilly region has a radish stony soil. The plain region having brownish black soil is suitable for growing paddy and vegetables. The soil of the riverbanks and delta area is sandy loom suitable for paddy, sugarcane and groundnut cultivation. Some part of the Lakhanpur block is specially known for ginger cultivation which it exports in tones to other countries.
The economy of the Jharsuguda District can be judged through its natural resources. The District is rich in minerals like coals, quartzite and fire clay. Besides deposit of limestone, granite, white sand stone and laterite stone are also found in several places of Jharsuguda District that add to economy of the District. Several industrial units like Vendanta Alumina, Bhusan Steel and Power, TATA Refractories are operating in the District that contribute to the economic growth of the District. There are also some major forest products like Kendu leaves, wood, rice and leather that also contribute significantly to the economy of Jharsuguda District.
As per literacy rate of the Jharsuguda District is 78.86% .The male literacy rate is 86.61% whereas female literacy rate is 70.73%. There are numbers of educational institutions in the District like S.M. College Jharsuguda, Women,s College Jharsuguda, PKSS College Jharsuguda, L.N. College Jharsuguda, Black Diamond College of Engineering and Jharsuguda Engineering School etc.
Jharsuguda is one of the popular tourist destinations. The District is decorated with many tourist places. Koilighughar waterfall (Lakhanpur) and Adyaswambhu are the picnic spots that attract lots of tourists every year. Likewise there are several places of historical importance like ruins of Hill Forts of Ulapgarh, rock painting and lithography of Bikramkhol, Ushakothi cave and Kolabira Fort. The District has number of temples namely Padmasini Temple of Padampur, Ancient Shiva Shrine of Jhadeswar Temple, Ramchandi, an ancient Shaktipitha, Shree Pahadeswar Temple, Shiva Shrine of Mahadebpali.
Jharsuguda District is very much rich in its cultural heritage. Various fairs and festivals are celebrated round the year that indicates its richness in culture and religion. There are many common fairs and festivals that are celebrated in the state. But there are few distinct and special festivals that are celebrated in the District like Ranjta Festival, Ratha Jatra of Kukurjunga, Famous Gokulastami Jatra of Rajpur and Makar Ratha Jatra of Belpahar.
Jharsuguda District is a beautiful Diaspora of different origins of people from across India which makes it unique & different from other cities in Odisha. Sambalpuri is the mother tongue of the District. Besides some ethnic groups have their own languages like Agrias, Lairias, Mundas, Kishans, Khadis and Turis.